What do you know about 1031 Exchanges?
1031 Exchanges are a valuable tool used by real estate investors to buy/sell investment property and effectively defer state and federal taxes. Before you sell an investment property outright, thus triggering tax on the income, consider completing an exchange. See below for a manual of the rules and regulations.
1031 Exchange Manual
Table of Contents
Introduction to 1031 Exchanges
A 1031 Exchange is a Powerful Tax Deferral Opportunity
The Advantages of a 1031 Exchange
The Disadvantages of a 1031 Exchange
The Basic Rules For A 1031 Exchange
The Relinquished Property Must Be Qualifying Property
Property Which is Not Qualified
The Replacement Property Must Be Like-kind
Boot Received Will Be Taxable
Real Estate Interests Which Are Like–Kind
Various types of real estate interests are “like–kind”
The Basic Types of Exchanges
The “Held–For” Requirement for 1031 Exchanges
Property exchanged must each be held for investment or business purposes
Delayed Exchanges – The Exchange Process And Time Clocks
The Basic Approach
The 45-Day Rule
The 180-Day Replacement Rule
Reverse Exchanges – The Exchange Process and Time Clocks
The 180-Day Rule for Reverse Exchanges
The 45-Day Rule for Reverse Exchanges
The Five-Day Rule for Reverse Exchanges
The 180-Day Clock for Reverse Exchanges
If Tax Payer Has Not Yet Found Buyer for His Exchange Property by End of 180 Days
New Responsibilities of the Exchanged Accommodator Titleholder
The Role of the Qualified Intermediary
The Role of the Qualified Intermediary is Essential
Definition of the Qualified Intermediary
What the Qualified Intermediary Does
The Qualification Requirements
Criteria For Selection Of A Qualified Intermediary
The Rules of "Boot" in a Section 1031 Exchange
Types of Boot
Boot Offset Rules and Netting
Rules Of Thumb
Related Party Exchanges
The Two-Year Holding Period Requirement
Purchasing From a Related Party
Selling to a Related Party
Who are Related Parties Under the Rules
Multiple-Asset Exchanges and Personal Residences
Types of Multiple-Asset Exchanges
Exchanges or Sale of Property Including Personal Residences
Personal Property Exchanges
Types of Personal Property Exchanges
Like-Kind Rules for Personal Property
Partnership and Co-Ownership Issues
Partnership vs. Co-Ownership
Tax-Planning for Partnership Split–Ups
What Is a TIC?
Tenancy In Common Investments
Common Structure For A TIC
What Is a Section 721 Exchange into an UPREIT?
A REIT is a Real Estate Investment Trust
An UPREIT is a REIT Partnership
A §721 Exchange is a Contribution to the UPREIT
Introduction to 1031 Exchanges
A 1031 Exchange (Tax-Deferred Exchange) Is One Of The Most Powerful Tax Deferral Strategies Remaining Available For Taxpayers. Section 1031 of the Internal Revenue Code is the basis for tax-deferred exchanges. Taxpayers should never have to pay income taxes on the sale of property if they intend to reinvest the proceeds in similar or like-kind property. Professionals involved with advising or counseling real estate investors need to know about tax-deferred exchanges, including Realtors, lawyers, accountants, financial planners, tax advisors, escrow and closing agents and lenders.
The Advantage of a 1031 Exchange is the ability of a taxpayer to sell income, investment or business property and replace with like-kind Replacement Propertywithout having to pay federal or state income taxes on the transaction. A sale of property and subsequent purchase of a Replacement Property doesn't work; there must be an Exchange.
The Disadvantages of a Section 1031 Exchange include a reduced basis for depreciation on the Replacement Property. The tax basis of Replacement Property is essentially the purchase price of the Replacement Property minus the gain which was deferred on the sale of the Relinquished Property as a result of the exchange. The Replacement Property thus includes a deferred gain that will be taxed in the future if the taxpayer cashes out of his investment.
Exchange Techniques. There is more than one way to structure a tax-deferred exchange under Section 1031 of the Internal Revenue Code. However, the 1991 “safe harbor” Regulations established procedures which include the use of an Intermediary, direct deeding, the use of qualified escrow accounts for temporary holding of "exchange funds" and other procedures which have the official blessing of the IRS. Therefore, it is desirable to structure exchanges so that they can be in harmony with the 1991 Regulations. As a result, exchanges commonly employ the services of a facilitator known as a Qualified Intermediary.
Exchanges can also occur without the services of an Intermediary when parties to an exchange are willing to exchange deeds or if they are willing to enter into an Exchange Agreement with each other. However, two-party exchanges are uncommon since, in the typical Section 1031 transaction, the seller of the Replacement Property is not the buyer of the taxpayer’s Relinquished Property.
-The Basic Rules for a 1031 Exchange-
The Relinquished Property Must Be Qualifying Property. Qualifying property is property (or equipment) held for investment purposes or used in a taxpayer’s trade or business. Investment property includes real estate, improved or unimproved, held for investment or income producing purposes. Property used in a taxpayer’s trade or business includes his office facilities or place of doing business, as well as equipment used in his trade or business. Real estate must be replaced with like-kind real estate. Equipment must be replaced with like-kind equipment.
Property Which Does Not Qualify For A 1031 Exchange includes:
- A personal residence
- Land under development for resale
- Construction or fix/flips for resale
- Property purchased for resale
- Inventory property
- Corporation common stock
- Partnership interests
- LLC membership interests
Replacement Property Title Must Be Taken In The Same Name As The Relinquished Property Was Titled. If a husband and wife own property in joint tenancy or as tenants in common, the Replacement Property must be deeded to both spouses, either as joint tenants or as tenants in common. Corporations, partnerships, limited liability companies and trusts must be in title on the Replacement Property the same as they were on the Relinquished Property.
The Replacement Property Must Be Like-Kind:
- Improved real estate can be replaced with unimproved real estate.
- Unimproved real estate can be replaced with improved real estate.
- A 100% interest can be exchanged for an undivided percentage interest with multiple owners and vice versa.
- One property can be exchanged for two or more properties. Two or more properties can be exchanged for one Replacement Property.
- A duplex can be exchanged for a four-plex. Investment property can be exchanged for business property and vice versa.
As referenced above, a taxpayer's personal residence cannot be exchanged for income property and income or investment property cannot be exchanged for a personal residence which the taxpayer will reside in. See an expanded explanation below of different kinds of real estate interests which are like-kind for real estate exchanges.
Any Boot Received In Addition To Like-kind Replacement Property Will Be Taxable (to the extent of gain realized on the exchange). This is okay when a seller desires some cash or debt reduction and is willing to pay some taxes. Otherwise, boot should be avoided in order for a 1031 Exchange to be completely tax free.
The term "boot" is not used in the Internal Revenue Code or the Regulations but is commonly used in discussing the tax consequences of a Section 1031 tax-deferred exchange. Boot received is the money, debt relief or the fair market value of "other property" received by the taxpayer in an exchange. Money includes all cash equivalents received by the taxpayer. Debt relief is any net debt reduction which occurs as a result of the exchange taking into account the debt on the Relinquished Property and the Replacement Property. "Other property" is property that is non-like-kind, such as personal property received in an exchange of real property, property used for personal purposes, or "non-qualified property." "Other property" also includes such things as a promissory note received from a buyer (Seller Financing).
A Rule Of Thumb for avoiding "boot" is to always replace with property of equal or greater value than the Relinquished Property. Never "trade down." Trading down always results in boot received, either cash, debt reduction or both. Boot received is mitigated by exchange expenses paid. See The Rules of Boot in a Section 1031 Exchange for a detailed explanation of these rules.
-Real Estate Interests Which Qualify as Like–Kind for a 1031 Exchange-
The following types of real estate interests are deemed by Congress and the IRS to qualify as like–kind to each other for a 1031 Exchange:
- Fee interest
- Fractional (tenancy-in-common) interest
- Leasehold interest, 30-year plus lease
- Easements for conservation
- Easements for right of way
- Water rights
- Mineral Rights
- Oil & Gas interests
- Transferrable Development Rights
- Mutual Irrigation Ditch Stock
-The Basic Types of Exchanges-
A Simultaneous Exchange is an exchange in which the closing of the Relinquished Property and the Replacement Property occur on the same day, usually back to back. There is no interval of time between the two closings. This type of exchange is covered by the Safe harbor Regulations.
A Delayed Exchange is an exchange where the Replacement Property is acquired at a later date than the closing of the sale of the Relinquished Property. The exchange is not simultaneous or on the same day. This type of exchange is sometimes referred to as a "Starker Exchange" after the well known Supreme Court case which ruled in the taxpayer's favor for a delayed exchange before the Internal Revenue Code provided for such exchanges. There are strict time frames established by the Code and Regulations for completion of a delayed exchange, namely the 45-Day Clock and the 180-Day Clock (see detailed explanation below).
A Reverse Exchange (Title-Holding Exchange) is an exchange in which the Replacement Property is purchased and closed on before the Relinquished Property is sold. Usually the Intermediary takes title to the Replacement Property and holds title until the taxpayer can find a buyer for the Relinquished Property and close on the sale under an Exchange Agreement with the Intermediary. Subsequent to the closing of the Relinquished Property (or simultaneous with this closing), the Intermediary conveys title to the Replacement Property to the taxpayer. The IRS has issued safe harbor guidance on Reverse Exchanges (see below).
An Improvement Exchange (Title-Holding Exchange) is an exchange in which a taxpayer desires to acquire a property and arrange for construction of improvements on the property before it is received as Replacement Property. The improvements are usually a building on an unimproved lot, but can also include enhancements made to an already improved property in order to create adequate value to close on the Exchange with no boot occurring. The Code and Regulations do not take into account for exchange purposes improvements made to a property after the closing on the Replacement Property has occurred. Therefore, it is necessary for the Intermediary to close on, take title and hold title to the property until the improvements are constructed and then convey title to the improved property to the taxpayer as Replacement Property. Improvement Exchanges are done in the context of both Delayed Exchanges and Reverse Exchanges, depending on the circumstances. The IRS has issued safe harbor guidance on Reverse Exchanges (including title-holding exchanges for construction or improvement)
-The "Held For" Requirement for 1031 Property Received or Exchanged-
In order to qualify for a 1031 Exchange, the Relinquished and the Replacement Properties must both have been acquired and "held for" investment or for use in a trade or business. The amount of time that the property must be "held for" use in a trade or business is not specified in either the Code or the Regulations.
The position of the IRS has been that if a taxpayer’s property was acquired immediately before an exchange, or if the Replacement Property is disposed of immediately after an exchange, it was not held for the required purpose and the "held for" requirement was not met.
There is no safe harbor holding period for complying with the "held for" requirement. The IRS interprets compliance based on their view of the taxpayer’s intent. Intent is demonstrated by facts and circumstances surrounding the taxpayer’s acquisition of ownership of the property and what the taxpayer does with the property. The courts have been more liberal than the IRS on these issues.
Here are some examples of transactions that should be considered to have potential for a finding by the IRS that the "held for" requirement has not been met:
- The taxpayer acquires Replacement Property and immediately lists the property for sale. The IRS will interpret the intent to acquire the property for resale instead of for investment purposes.
- The taxpayer receives the Relinquished Property by deed from a partnership and immediately proceeds to sell/exchange it (aka "drop and swap").
- The taxpayer acquires Replacement Property and immediately converts the property to a personal residence.
- The taxpayer acquires Replacement Property and immediately transfers the property to a corporation, partnership or LLC.
A cushion of time between events such as these is desirable to reduce the risk of possible "held for" issues in an exchange. Exchange Professionals recommend one year for the Replacement Property. The IRS has ruled that two years was adequate in a private letter ruling (Ltr Rul 8429039) but this was not made mandatory. In any event, the burden is on the taxpayer to support compliance with the "held for productive use in investment or a trade or business" requirement.
-Delayed Exchanges – The Exchange Process and Time Clocks-
A taxpayer desiring to do a 1031 Exchange lists and/or markets the property for sale in the normal manner without regard to the contemplated 1031 Exchange. A buyer is found and a contract to sell the property is executed. Accommodation language is usually placed in the contract securing the cooperation of the buyer to the seller's intended 1031 Exchange, but such accommodation language is not mandatory.
When contingencies are satisfied and the contract is scheduled for a closing, services of an Intermediary are arranged. The taxpayer enters into an Exchange Agreement with the Intermediary, which permits the Intermediary to become the "substitute seller" in accordance with the requirements of the Code and Regulations.
The Exchange Agreement usually provides for:
- An assignment, to the Intermediary, of the seller’s Contract to Buy and Sell Real Estate.
- A closing where the Intermediary receives the proceeds due the seller at closing. Direct deeding is used. The Exchange Agreement will comply with the requirements of the Code and Regulations wherein the taxpayer can have no rights to the funds being held by the Intermediary until the exchange is completed or the Exchange Agreement terminates. The taxpayer cannot touch the funds.
- An interval of time where the seller proceeds to locate suitable Replacement Property and enter into a contract to purchase the property. The interval of time is subject to the 45-Day and 180-Day rules.
- An assignment, to the Intermediary, of the contract to purchase Replacement Property.
- A closing where the Intermediary uses the exchange funds in its possession and direct deeding to acquire the Replacement Property for the seller.
The 45-Day Rule for Identification. The first timing restriction for a delayed Section 1031 exchange is for the taxpayer to either close on the purchase of the Replacement Property or to identify the potential Replacement Property within 45 days from the date of transfer of the Relinquished Property. The 45-Day Rule is satisfied if Replacement Property is received before 45 days have expired. Otherwise, the identification must be by written document (the identification notice) signed by the taxpayer and hand delivered, mailed, faxed, or otherwise sent to the Intermediary. The identification notice must contain an unambiguous description of the Replacement Property. This includes, in the case of real property, the legal description, street address or a distinguishable name.
The 45-Day Rule for Identification imposes limitations on the number of potential Replacement Properties, which can be identified and received as Replacement Properties. More than one potential Replacement Property can be identified by one of the following three rules:
The Three-Property Rule – Any three properties regardless of their market values.
The 200% Rule – Any number of properties as long as the aggregate fair market value of the replacement properties does not exceed 200% of the aggregate FMV of all of the exchanged properties as of the initial transfer date.
The 95% Rule – Any number of replacement properties if the fair market value of the properties actually received by the end of the exchange period is at least 95% of the aggregate FMV of all the potential replacement properties identified.
Although the Regulations only require written notification within 45 days, it is recommended practice for a solid contract to be in place by the end of the 45-day period. Otherwise, a taxpayer may find himself unable to close on any of the properties which are identified under the 45-day letter. After 45 days have expired, it is not possible to close on any property which was not identified in the 45-day letter.Failure to submit the 45-Day Letter causes the Exchange Agreement to terminate and the Intermediary will disburse all unused funds in his possession to the taxpayer.
The 180-Day Rule for Receipt of Replacement Property. The Replacement Property must be received and the exchange completed no later than the earlier of
- 180 days after the transfer of the exchanged property or
- The due date of the income tax return, including extensions, for the tax year in which the Relinquished Property was transferred.
The Replacement Property received must be substantially the same as the property that was identified under the 45-day rule described above. There is no provision for extension of the 180 days for any circumstance or hardship. There are provisions for extensions for presidentially declared disaster areas.
As noted above, the 180-Day Rule is shortened to the due date of a tax return if the tax return is not put on extension. For instance, if an Exchange commences late in the tax year, the 180 days can be later than the April 15 filing date of the return. If the Exchange is not completed by the time for filing the return, the return must be put on extension. Failure to put the return on extension can cause the replacement period for the Exchange to end on the due date of the return. This can be a trap for the unwary.
Reverse Exchanges – The Exchange Process and Time Clocks
Safe Harbor Reverse Exchanges – Rev. Proc. 2000-37 issued by the IRS on September 15, 2000 established recognition of and "safe harbor" guidance for Reverse Exchanges complying with the guidelines. These are known as "Safe Harbor Reverse Exchanges." Reverse Exchanges which are not in compliance with the guidelines are not prohibited by Rev. Proc. 2000-37 but must stand or fall on their own merits and are referred to as "Non-Safe Harbor Reverse Exchanges."
Reverse Exchanges of either type are common and occur when a taxpayer arranges for an Exchange Accommodation Titleholder (EAT) (usually the Intermediary) to take and temporarily hold title to Replacement Property before a taxpayer finds a buyer for his Relinquished Property. Sometimes the exchange accommodation titleholder will take and hold title to the Relinquished Property until a buyer can be found for it. Reverse Exchanges of either type are useful in circumstances where a taxpayer needs to close on the purchase of Replacement Property before a Relinquished Property can be sold or where the taxpayer desires ample time to search for suitable Replacement Property before selling a Relinquished Property which starts the 45-day and 180-day clocks for Delayed Exchanges. Reverse Exchanges are also common where a taxpayer wants to acquire a property and construct improvements on it before taking title to the property as Replacement Property. This is necessary if the value of the improvements is important for replacing with property of equal or greater value in order to avoid a taxable "trade-down."
Rev. Proc. 2004-51 issued in 2004 added an additional requirement for Reverse Exchanges to be under the safe harbor "umbrella." Any property which has been previously owned by the taxpayer within the prior 180 days is declared ineligible for protection under the Rev. Proc. 2000-37 safe harbor procedures.
The Safe Harbor Reverse Exchange Time Clocks. The safe-harbor procedures impose compliance requirements which require analysis for impact and planning that can be summarized as follows:
- The 5-Day Rule. A "Qualified Exchange Accommodation Agreement" must be entered into between the taxpayer and the exchange accommodation titleholder (Qualified Intermediary in most cases) within five business days after title to property is taken by the exchange accommodation titleholder in anticipation of a Reverse Exchange.
- The 45-Day Rule. The property to be "relinquished" (the Relinquished Property) must be identified within 45 days. More than one potential property to be sold can be identified in a manner similar to the rules of delayed exchanges (i.e., the three-property rule, the 200% rule, etc.)
- The 180-Day Rule. The Reverse Exchange must be completed within 180 days of taking title by the exchange accommodation titleholder.
The 180-Day Clock. as with Delayed Exchanges, Reverse Exchanges must be completed within 180 days. Prior to the issuance of Rev. Proc. 2000-37 there was no statutory limitation of time in which to be in title. It was common for the Exchange Accommodation Titleholder to be in title on the parked property for a year or more. The taxpayer would search for a buyer for his Relinquished Property or have improvements constructed on the property being held by the Titleholder. 180 days may be a suitable time for a buyer to be found for the Relinquished Property. However, 180 days is a problem with respect to construction/improvement exchanges. The 180 day time limit within which to complete a Safe Harbor Reverse Exchange is probably insufficient for most large "build to suit" exchanges.
What if the taxpayer has not yet found a buyer for his Relinquished Property by the end of 180 days? In this case, the taxpayer can discontinue his attempt to accomplish a Reverse Exchange and take deed to the Replacement Property. The taxpayer may decide to extend his Reverse Exchange outside of the protection of the safe harbor procedures. The safe harbor guidance issued by the IRS is not mandatory. Reverse Exchanges that do not comply with the requirements of Rev. Proc. 2000-37 stand or fall on their own merits and should be considered to have a higher degree of audit risk.
Rev. Proc. 2000-37 imposes responsibilities and burdens on the Exchange Accommodator Titleholder. The Accommodator is required to report, for federal income tax purposes, the "tax attributes" of ownership of the property it is in title on. Rents and expenses attributed to ownership of the property may have to be reported by the Accommodator. It is unclear if the Accommodator has to also report depreciation on the property it is in title on just as a true owner would be compelled to do.
-The Role Of the Qualified Intermediary-
The role of the Qualified Intermediary is essential to completing a successful and valid delayed exchange. The Qualified Intermediary is the glue that puts the buyer and seller of property together into the form of a 1031 Exchange. Where such an intermediary (often called an exchange facilitator) is used, the intermediary will not be considered the agent of the taxpayer for constructive receipt purposes notwithstanding the fact that he may be an agent under state law and the taxpayer may gain immediate possession of the money or property under the laws of agency.
In order to take advantage of the qualified intermediary "safe harbor" there must be a written agreement between the taxpayer and intermediary expressly limiting the taxpayer’s rights to receive, pledge, borrow or otherwise obtain the benefits of the money or property held by the intermediary.
A Qualified Intermediary is formally defined as a person who is not the taxpayer or a disqualified person and who enters into a written agreement (the "exchange agreement") with the taxpayer. The Qualified Intermediary acquires the Relinquished Property from the taxpayer, transfers the Relinquished Property to the buyer, acquires the Replacement Property and transfers the Replacement Property to the taxpayer. The Qualified Intermediary does not actually have to receive and transfer title as long as the legal fiction is maintained.
The Intermediary can act with respect to the property as the agent of any party to the transaction and further, an Intermediary is treated as entering into a contract for sale if the rights of a party to the contract are assigned to the Intermediary and all parties to the contract are notified in writing of the assignment on or before the date of the relevant transfer of property. This provision allows a taxpayer to enter into a contract for the transfer of the Relinquished Property and thereafter to assign his rights in the contract to the Intermediary. Providing all parties to the agreement are notified in writing of the assignment on or before the date of the transfer of the Relinquished Property, the intermediary is treated as having entered into the contract and after completion of the transfer, as having acquired and transferred the Relinquished Property.
There are no licensing requirements for Intermediaries established by the IRS. They need merely be not an unqualified person as defined by the Internal Revenue Code in order to be qualified. The Code prohibits certain "agents" of the taxpayer from being qualified. Accountants, attorneys and realtors who have served taxpayers in their professional capacities within the prior two years are disqualified from serving as a Qualified Intermediary for a taxpayer in an exchange. Related parties are also disqualified.
-Criteria for Selecting a Qualified Intermediary-
Intermediaries serve as a limited purpose depository institution and hold all of the Exchange Cash during the course of a 1031 Exchange. As a result, Intermediaries usually hold substantial sums of money on behalf of their exchange clients. With the exception of a few states, including Nevada, California, Idaho, Colorado and Arizona, there are no federal or state regulations or supervision of Intermediaries. Taxpayers are unsecured creditors when an Intermediary becomes bankrupt or insolvent. Funds held by Intermediaries are invested in a variety of ways, including pooled cash funds with stock brokerages and segregated liquid asset money market accounts. Obviously, the selection of an Intermediary who will be entrusted with the funds of a 1031 Exchange is an important matter.
Intermediaries offer widely varying services and have widely varying professional training, skills and competence. Intermediaries are usually attorneys, tax accountants, bank affiliates, title company affiliates or realtors. Many Intermediaries have no training as a tax professional or as an exchange professional and offer no consultation to a taxpayer on tax issues related to the exchange or on the technical requirements for completion of a successful exchange. Some Intermediaries simply bank funds.
Intermediaries take their fees or compensation in a variety of ways. Some Intermediaries charge little or no fees for their services and retain all or a portion of the interest earned on the funds in their possession. Some Intermediaries charge higher fees for their services and forward all interest earned on funds in their possession to the client at the end of the exchange. Some do a little of both. Interest earned on funds held by an Intermediary can vary widely also, depending on where the funds are invested or held on deposit.
Here are some of the things taxpayers should consider when engaging the services of an Intermediary:
- Does the Intermediary have tax professionals or Certified Exchange Specialists capable of consulting you on 1031 tax issues?
- Does the Intermediary deposit Exchange Funds in segregated and FDIC insured accounts?
- Is the Intermediary a member of the Federation Of Exchange Accommodators, a professional organization that expects its members to perform services at the highest level of competence and trust?
- Does the Intermediary have experience and a verifiable reputation?
- Is the Intermediary willing to meet with you, consult with you on exchange strategies, issues and execution of exchange documents?
- Is the Intermediary bonded with a fidelity bond?
- Are Exchange Funds available for disbursement within 24 hours?
- Does the Intermediary manage closings in order to avoid inadvertent boot and related taxes, which can cost you more than the fees they charge?
1031 Corporation complies with all of these expectations.
-The Rules of "Boot" in a Section 1031 Exchange-
A Taxpayer Must Not Receive "Boot" from an exchange in order for a Section 1031 exchange to be completely tax free. Any boot received is taxable (to the extent of gain realized on the exchange). This is acceptable when a seller desires some cash and is willing to pay some taxes. Otherwise, boot should be avoided in order for a 1031 Exchange to be tax free.
The term "boot" is not used in the Internal Revenue Code or the Regulations, but is commonly used in discussing the tax consequences of a Section 1031 tax-deferred exchange. Boot received is the money, debt relief or the fair market value of "other property" received by the taxpayer in an exchange. Money includes all cash equivalents received by the taxpayer. Debt relief is any net debt reduction which occurs as a result of the exchange taking into account the debt on the Relinquished Property and the Replacement Property. "Other property" is property that is non-like-kind such as personal property received in an exchange of real property, property used for personal purposes, or "non-qualified property." "Other property" also includes a promissory note received from a buyer (Seller Financing).
Boot can be in advertent and result from a variety of factors. It is important for a taxpayer to understand what can result in boot if taxable income is to be avoided. The most common sources of boot include the following:
- Cash boot received during the exchange. This will usually be in the form of "net cash received" at the closing of either the Relinquished Property or the Replacement Property.
- Debt reduction boot which occurs when a taxpayer’s debt on Replacement Property is less than the debt which was on the Relinquished Property. As with cash boot, debt reduction boot can occur when a taxpayer is "trading down" in the exchange.
- Sale proceeds being used to service costs at closing which are not closing expenses. If proceeds of sale are used to service non-transaction costs at closing, the result is the same as if the taxpayer received cash from the exchange, and then used the cash to pay these costs. Taxpayers are encouraged to bring cash to the closing of the sale of their Relinquished Property to pay for the following non-transaction costs:
- Rent prorations.
- Utility escrow charges.
- Tenant damage deposits transferred to the buyer.
- Property tax prorations? Possibly, see explanation below.
- Any other charges unrelated to the closing.
Tax prorations on the Relinquished Property settlement statement can be considered as service of debt based on PLR 8328011. Under this rationale exchange cash used to service tax prorations should not result in taxable boot. However, taxpayers may want to bring cash to the Relinquished Property closing anyway in order to resolve this issue.
Excess borrowing to acquire Replacement Property. Borrowing more money than is necessary to close on Replacement Property will cause cash being held by an Intermediary to be excessive for the closing. Excess cash held by an Intermediary is distributed to the taxpayer, resulting in cash boot to the taxpayer. Taxpayers must use all cash being held by an Intermediary for Replacement Property. Additional financing must be no more than what is necessary, in addition to the cash, to close on the property.
Loan acquisition costs for the Replacement Property, which are serviced from exchange funds being brought to the closing. Loan acquisition costs include origination fees and other fees related to acquiring the loan. Taxpayers usually take the position that loan acquisition costs are being serviced from the proceeds of the loan. However, the IRS may take a position that these costs are being serviced from Exchange Funds. There is no guidance which is helpful in the form of Treasury Regulations on this issue at the present time.
Non-like-kind property which is received from the exchange, in addition to like-kind property (real estate). Non-like-kind property could include the following:
- Seller financing, promissory note.
- Furniture and fixtures acquired with purchase of real estate.
- Sprinkler equipment acquired with farm land.
Boot Offset Rules – Only the net boot received by a taxpayer is taxed. In determining the amount of net boot received by the taxpayer, certain offsets are allowed and others are not, as follows:
- Cash boot paid offsets cash boot received (but only at the same closing table).
Cash boot paid at the Replacement Property closing table does not offset cash boot received at the Relinquished Property closing table (Reg. ï¿½1.1031(k)-1(j)(3) Example 2). This rule probably also applies to inadvertent boot received at the Relinquished Property closing table because of prorations, etc. (see above).
- Debt incurred on the Replacement Property offsets debt-reduction boot received on the relinquished property.
- Cash boot paid offsets debt-reduction boot received.
- Debt boot paid never offsets cash boot received (net cash boot received is always taxable).
- Exchange expenses (transaction and closing costs) paid offset net cash boot received.
Rules of Thumb:
- Always trade "across" or up. Never trade down (the "even or up rule"). Trading down always results in boot received, either cash, debt reduction or both. The boot received is mitigated by exchange expenses paid.
- Bring cash to the closing of the Relinquished Property to pay for charges which are not transaction costs (see above).
- Do not receive non-like-kind property (or if you do, pay for it).
- Do not over finance Replacement Property. Financing should be limited to the amount of money necessary to close on the Replacement Property in addition to exchange funds which will be brought to the Replacement Property closing.
-Related Party Exchanges-
(Two-Year Holding Period Requirement)
Exchange of property between related parties. There is a special rule for exchanges between related parties (IRC §1031(f)), which requires related taxpayers exchanging property with each other to hold the exchanged property for at least two years following the exchange to qualify for non-recognition treatment. If either party disposes of the property received in the exchange before the running of the two-year period, any gain or loss that would have been recognized on the original exchange must be taken into account on the date that the disqualifying disposition occurs.
Sale to an unrelated party, replacement from a related party. A taxpayer will often desire to sell to an unrelated party and receive Replacement Property from a related party. This type of related party transaction does not work, according to the IRS, if the related party receives cash (Rev. Rul. 2002-83). The IRS reasons that if the taxpayer or a related party "cashes out" of property in this manner, IRC §1031(f)(4) "kicks in" and the exchange is disallowed. However, if the related party is also doing an exchange (and is not "cashing out") then it is okay to receive Replacement Property from a related party according to PLR 200440002 and PLR 200616005.
Sale to a related party, replacement from an unrelated party. A taxpayer will often sell to a related party but receive Replacement Property from an unrelated party. This is OK but it has been unclear whether the related party was required to hold the property it acquired from the taxpayer for two years. Instructions to Form 8824 seem to imply that the two-year rule applies. However, PLR 200706001, PLR 200712013 and PLR 200728008 released in 2007 say that the two-year rule does not apply to a related party who purchased the Relinquished Property from the taxpayer.
Related parties under the rules are the following:
- Members of a family, including only brothers, sisters, half-brothers, half-sisters, spouse, ancestors (parents, grandparents, etc.), and lineal descendants (children, grandchildren, etc.);
- An individual and a corporation when the individual owns, directly or indirectly, more than 50% in value of the outstanding stock of the corporation;
- Two corporations that are members of the same controlled group as defined in IRC §1563(a), except that "more than 50%" is substituted for "at least 80%" in that definition;
- A trust fiduciary and a corporation when the trust or the grantor of the trust owns, directly or indirectly, more than 50% in value of the outstanding stock of the corporation;
- A grantor and fiduciary, and the fiduciary and beneficiary, of any trust;
- Fiduciaries of two different trusts, and the fiduciary and beneficiary of two different trusts, if the same person is the grantor of both trusts;
- A tax-exempt educational or charitable organization and a person who, directly or indirectly, controls such an organization, or a member of that person’s family;
- A corporation and a partnership if the same persons own more than 50% in value of the outstanding stock of the corporation and more than 50% of the capital interest, or profits interest, in the partnership;
- Two S corporations if the same persons own more than 50% in value of the outstanding stock of each corporation;
- Two corporations, one of which is an S corporation, if the same persons own more than 50% in value of the outstanding stock of each corporation; or
- An executor of an estate and a beneficiary of such estate, except in the case of a sale or exchange in satisfaction of a pecuniary bequest.
- Two partnerships if the same persons own directly, or indirectly, more than 50% of the capital interests or profits in both partnerships, or
- A person and a partnership when the person owns, directly or indirectly, more than 50% of the capital interest or profits interest in the partnership.
A disqualifying disposition does not include dispositions by reason of the death of either party, the compulsory or involuntary conversion of the exchanged property if the exchange occurred before the threat or imminence of the conversion, or dispositions where it is established to the satisfaction of the IRS that neither the exchange nor the disposition had as one of their principal purposes the avoidance of federal income tax.
-Multiple-Asset Exchanges and Personal Residences-
A Multiple-Asset Exchange occurs when a taxpayer is selling/exchanging a property which includes more than one type of asset. A common example is a farm property including a personal residence, farmland and farm equipment.
The Treasury Department has issued Regulations, which govern how multiple-asset exchanges are to be reported. The Regulations establish "exchange groups" which are separately analyzed for compliance with the like-kind replacement requirements and rules of boot. Farmland must be replaced with qualifying like-kind real property. Farm equipment must be replaced with qualifying like-kind equipment. A personal residence is not 1031 property and is accounted for under the rules applicable to the sale of a personal residence.
The Multiple-Asset Regulations are ambiguous concerning how the personal residence portion of a multiple-asset exchange should be accounted for. However, it is common practice for the closing on the Relinquished Property to be bifurcated into two separate closings; one for the personal residence and the other for the remainder of the property. The proceeds applicable to the sale of the personal residence are usually disbursed to the taxpayer and not retained by the Intermediary in the exchange escrow. The balance of the proceeds is retained by the Intermediary for use in acquiring like-kind Replacement Property under the Exchange Agreement.
Another common example of multiple-asset exchanges is a real property sale that includes personal property (i.e. furniture and appliances). Hotel properties are a good example of a multiple-asset exchange including real and personal property.
Even a sale/exchange of a rental property includes a combination of real and personal property. In practice, the value of the personal property that is transferred with a rental property is commonly disregarded for calculation and income tax reporting purposes. However, there is no de minimus rule which permits a taxpayer to disregard the value of personal property, even if it is nominal.
The Multiple-Asset Regulations are complex and require the services of a tax professional for analysis purposes and income tax reporting. The tax professional is essential and will help in determining values, allocations of sale price and purchase prices to the elements of the transaction. Exchanges that include personal property of significant value should reference the personal property in the exchange agreement and be completed in a manner that complies with all of the exchange rules concerning identification, etc.
-Personal Property Exchanges- (In A Nutshell)
As explained above, exchanges frequently include personal property. However, personal property exchanges are just as common as real property exchanges. Personal property exchanges commonly occur with respect to corporate or business aircraft, construction equipment, farm equipment, and even livestock.
The like-kind rules are more challenging for personal property than for real property. The like-kind provisions contained in the Regulations establish safe harbor definitions of like-kind replacement personal property if the Replacement Property is within the same "General Asset Class" or within the same "Product Class."
The General Asset Classes are found in the Regulations (§1.1031(a)-2(b)(2)) and can be summarized as follows:
- Office Furniture, Fixtures, And Equipment
- Information systems (computers and peripheral equipment)
- Data Handling Equipment, Except Computers
- Airplanes (airframes and engines), except those used in commercial or contract carrying of passengers or freight, and all helicopters (airframes and engines)
- Automobiles, Taxis
- Light General Purpose Trucks
- Heavy General Purpose Trucks
- Railroad cars and locomotives, except those owned by railroad transportation companies
- Tractor units for use over-the-road
- Trailers and trailer-mounted containers
- Vessels, barges, tugs, and similar water transportation equipment, except those used in marine construction, and
- Industrial steam and electric generation and/or distribution systems
The Product Classes are found in Sectors 31, 32 and 33 (pertaining to manufacturing industries) of the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) set forth in Executive Office of the President, Office of Management and Budget, North American Industry Classification System, United States, 2007 (NAICS Manual) as periodically updated.
The classes are broad for classes of equipment such as farm equipment, office equipment and hotel furnishings. Vehicles must be replaced with similar types of vehicles.
The services of a tax professional are essential for successful personal property exchanges and related compliance with the like-kind Replacement Property rules.
-Partnership And Co-Ownership Issues-
Investment real estate is commonly owned by co-owners in a partnership containing two or more partners or by co-owners as tenants in common. An exchange of a tenant in common interest in real estate poses no problems and is eligible for 1031 Exchange treatment. However, an exchange of an interest in a partnership is not permitted under the Code and Regulations.
If a partnership owns property and desires to sale/exchange the property, then the partnership is the entity that is the Exchanger and party to the Exchange Agreement. The partnership will take title to the Replacement Property.
Frequently, individual partners in a partnership desire to take their share of the proceeds of sale of the partnership property, replace with qualifying 1031 Replacement Property in their own names and end their relationship with the partnership. This presents problems that require careful planning and is not without tax risk.
If a partnership involving two or more partners wishes to discontinue the partnership, sell the property, and go their separate ways with either the cash or a 1031 Exchange, it is necessary for the individual partners to receive deed to the property in advance of the sale. This is done in the context of a distribution of property from the partnership to its partners who then hold the property as tenants in common. Each individual partner then is positioned to sell or exchange his tenancy in common ownership in the real estate. This is known in the industry as a "drop and swap" and is often done at the same closing table. However, it is better for the "drop" to be performed some time before the "swap" is done in order to comply with the "held for investment" rule by the individual partners. Simultaneous "drop and swaps" have been challenged in past years by the IRS. The courts have been more lenient.
If a partnership with multiple partners wishes to exchange property in the name of the partnership but some of the partners want to "cash out" or go separate ways, it is common for the partnership to do a "split-off." The partnership distributes tenancy in common title to a portion of the partnership property to those individual partners who wish to proceed in separate directions, and the partnership (and its remaining partners) proceed with an exchange in the name of the partnership.
The services of a tax professional is essential for tax planning and structuring for successful exchanges of partnership and co-ownership interests in real estate.
-What is a TIC?-
(Tenancy In Common Investments)
Tenancy in common investments ("TIC" or "TIC Investments") have become a booming industry in the United States in recent years. A tenancy in common investment (better known as a TIC) is an investment by the taxpayer in real estate which is co-owned with other investors. Since the taxpayer holds a deed to real estate as a tenant in common, the investment qualifies under the like-kind rules of IRC §1031. TIC investments are typically made in projects such as apartment houses, shopping centers, office buildings, etc. TIC sponsors arrange TIC syndications to comply with the limitations specified by the IRS with Rev Proc 2002-22 which, among other things, limits the number of investors to 35.
This type of an investment can appeal to taxpayers who are tired of managing real estate. TICs can provide a secure investment with a predictable rate of return on their investment. Management responsibilities are provided by management professionals. Cash returns on these types of investments are typically in the 6% to 7% range. Syndicators of TICs are called "sponsors." Investment offerings can be made directly by the sponsor or by brokers who can assist taxpayers with an assortment of offerings currently on the market.
TIC investments are treated by most sponsors as securities because they meet the definition of securities either in the state where the property resides or in the various states where the sponsor intends to offer the investment for sale. The SEC has not ruled on this issue but most states are quite clear in their statutes that these investments are securities under state law. This means that only licensed security dealers may market these investments. However, even though the investments may be securities under state law, the investment is a real estate investment for purposes of §1031.
Some sponsors of TIC investments structure their TIC so that the investment is a real estate investment not subject to state security laws. Usually this means that the TIC sponsor will not be responsible for management of the investment and independent management will be employed.
TIC investments are commonly structured in one of the following ways:
- A single-tenant property with an established credit rating,
- Multiple tenants subject to a single master lease with the TIC sponsor who subleases to the tenants,
- Multiple tenants each with separate leases managed by professional management.
Taxpayers considering a TIC investment should be prepared for an investment which may last for several years with limited liquidity. As with any other real estate investment, an investment in a TIC can be subject to various business risks. Taxpayers should research track records and management performance of sponsors who are offering TIC investments. They should also carefully review any available proforma operating statements and prospectus. A financial advisor should be consulted when necessary.
A list of TIC sponsors and brokers by state can be found on the website of the Tenant In Common Association (TICA) at www.ticassoc.org.
-What is a Section 721 Exchange into an UPREIT?-
A REIT is a Real Estate Investment Trust whose stock is publically traded. An UPREIT is a real estate investment operating partnership in which the REIT is the general partner and real estate investors are limited partners. A Section 721 Exchange is the method by which real estate investors can transfer a real estate investment into an UPREIT tax-free (or tax-deferred). IRC §721 deals with tax-free contributions of real estate to an operating partnership in exchange for an interest in the partnership.
UPREITs use IRC §721 to acquire property from investors who want to exchange out of their real estate investment into an investment which is managed by professionals. Subsequently, at a point in time which is suitable for the investor, UPREIT partnership ownership units are exchanged for shares for publically traded stock in the REIT which are then sold on the securities market. The exchange of units of the UPREIT operating partnership for stock shares in the REIT is a taxable event. But this is done at the same time that the REIT stock shares are sold so at this time the investor is cashing out of all or part of his investment at capital gains rates. This arrangement provides professional management and liquidity to the real estate investor.
In order to contribute an investment property to an UPREIT, the property must meet the REIT’s investment criteria which generally include a requirement for institutional-grade property. If the real estate investor’s real estate is not institutional-grade, he can convert his real estate to institutional-grade real estate with a sale and exchange through IRC §1031 and replacement with an investment in a syndicated tenancy-in-common (TIC) investment. Then, the TIC investment can be contributed to the UPREIT in exchange for ownership units in the operating partnership of the UPREIT. Some REITs can facilitate the taxpayer with this type of transaction.